The third Order of Birds according to the old arangement of Andreas Wagner
(Arch. fur Naturgesch. 1841, ii. page 93), in which he included
all the PICARAE of Nitzsch which were not ZYGODACTYL or amphibolic.
Subsequently Professor Cabanis (op. cit. 1847, i. pages 209-256,
and ii. pages 336-345) gave in greater detail the Families, subfamilies,
and genera which he believed the "Order" should comprise, and his are the
views which were adopted by most of the systematic writers who recognized
it at the time.
The word clavicles derives from the Latin "clavicula" meaning the
collar-bone. Each clavicle articulates by its dorsal end with a process
on the median side of the dorsal end of the coracoid, or with the scapula,
or with both; the ventral ends of the two clavicles generally fuse with
each other, forming the FURCULA, and approach the anterior end of the crest
of the sternum. Between them the OESOPHAGUS and the TRACHEA pass from the
neck into the thoracic cavity (see SKELETON).
So called in eastern Australia from its loud full note, ending sharply
like the crack of a whip, the Coachwhip Birds is the Eastern Whipbird (Psophodes
olivaceus), known as Psophodes crepitans by old ornithologists of
the 19th Century, while a second form, the Western Whipbird (Psophodes
nigrogularis) takes its place further westward. A third species,
the Mallee Whipbird (Psophodes leucogaster) resides around Victoria and
South Eastern Australia. Beside its curious utterance it has a low,
inward, melodious song. It inhabits the thickest brushwood, seldom exposing
itself to view; but when seen is very animated in all its actions, raising
its crest and spreading its tail.
Sometimes wrongly spelt "Colemouse", the Coalmouse (German Kohlmeise) is
the Coal-TITMOUSE, Parus ater.
A Cob (Dutch Kaap and Kobbe), according to Montagu is a name
for the Great Black-backed GULL, Larus marinus, but also often applied
to almost any of the larger species of Sea-Gull. Cob also refers
to a male swan. Yarrell wrote in his 1843 book British Birds edition
1, iii. page 130:-" In the language of swanherds, the male Swan is called
a Cob, the female a Pen: these terms refer to the comparative size and
grade of the two sexes".